Interested in learning more about how HDR is shaping the next-generation of premium entertainment experiences? Check out our HDR Glossary! Here you’ll find in-depth explanations of HDR technology and terms -- essential to industry professionals, prosumers and even those just interested in expanding their knowledge.

To access the full, comprehensive HDR Glossary with over 50+ terms, please click here.


Describes the rate at which bits are transferred from one location to another. In other words, it measures how much data is transmitted in a given amount of time. Bitrate is commonly measured in megabits per second (Mbps) for video content, and in kilobits per second (Kbps) for music.

Bitrate can also describe the quality of an audio or video file. For example, a video file that is compressed at 3 Mbps may look better than the same file compressed at 1 Mbps, assuming the same encoding is used. This is because more bits are used to represent the video data for each second of playback. Similarly, an MP3 audio file that is compressed at 192 Kbps will have a greater dynamic range and may sound slightly more clear than the same audio file compressed at 128 Kbps.


Color Spaces:

A color space is a representation of visible light and a specific organization of color.

In cinema and TV domains, we mainly use RGB (representation of a color by its Red, Green, and Blue primary components) or Yuv (representation of a color by its luminance in black and white, and its chrominance in color difference chromaticity components). These color spaces are typically based on specific display device characteristics. See also DCI-P3*.

Other color spaces such as XYZ and Lab are more representative of the human color vision model.


Frame Rate:

Also known as frame frequency, it is the number of frames or images that are projected or displayed per second. The term applies equally well to film and video cameras, computer graphics, and motion capture systems.

Frame rate is most often expressed in frames per second (FPS) or hertz (Hz). The higher the frame rate, the smoother the animation will appear, but the more processing power and system bandwidth is required.

Frame rates are typically standardized by the SMTPE, ITU, and others. For film, television, or video, frame rate is critical in synchronizing audio with pictures.


Gamut/Color Gamut:

In color reproduction, including computer graphics and photography, the gamut, or color gamut, is a certain complete subset of colors.

The most common usage refers to the subset of colors which can be accurately represented in a given circumstance, such as within a given color space or by a certain output device. Gamuts are commonly represented as areas in the CIE 1931 chromaticity diagram as shown on the left with the curved edge representing the spectral colors of the visible light range.



Stands for High Dynamic Range. Images containing luminance levels and/or shadow details that extend beyond the limits of traditional imaging systems. High Dynamic Range (HDR) imaging provides content creators with a wider tonal range from the darkest to the lightest areas in an image. This can be used to portray more realistic images with higher contrast, darker darks and brighter brights.


High Frame Rate:

Typically refers to 50/60 frame per second or higher. See also Frame Rate.


Image Resolution:

Image resolution is a measure of how much detail an image can contain. Higher resolution means the image can have more detail.

It can be measured in various ways. Resolution quantifies how close lines can be to each other and still be visibly resolved. Resolution units can be tied to physical sizes (e.g., lines per mm, lines per inch), to the overall size of a picture (lines per picture height, also known simply as lines, TV lines, or TVL).

The term resolution is often used for a pixel count in digital imaging. An image of H pixels height by W pixels wide can have any resolution up to H lines of picture height, or H TV lines. But when the pixel counts are referred to as resolution, the convention is to describe the pixel resolution with the set of numbers, where the first number is the number of pixel columns (width) and the second is the number of pixel rows (height), for example as 1920 by 1080.

Ultra High Definition (Ultra HD) has a resolution of 3840 x 2160 pixels, will display accurately on 16:9 aspect ratio (1.77:1) televisions (same aspect ratio as 1920 x 1080 HD image). Although 4K digital cinema projectors have a resolution of 4096 x 2160 pixels, most theatrical cinema content is projected at either 4096 x 1716 (2.39 aspect ratio) or 3996 x 2160 (1.85 aspect ratio). The terms “4K” and “Ultra HD” have become interchangeable on the market: although most “4K” TVs on the market today are Ultra HD with 3840 x 2160 pixels, many manufacturers market their TVs as 4K Ultra HD.



Stands for Liquid Crystal Display. LCD TVs have a white backlight. Tiny color filters fix sub-pixels to be either red, green, or blue. Each sub-pixel is covered by a liquid crystal valve that controls the fraction of light the sub-pixel passes. Each pixel of a display is made of at least one of each of the three colors of sub-pixel.

Liquid crystals are materials that behave as a crystal when confined to thin layers and can vary their optical properties when exposed to electric fields.

Some LCDs have a segmented backlight that allows portions of the image to be very bright by setting the segment behind to be very bright, while other parts can be very dark because the segment there is dimmed.



Stands for Organic Light-Emitting Diode. OLED TVs don’t have a backlight in the traditional sense. Each individual pixel receives its own drive current and therefore can be individually controlled. OLEDs enable a TV to have a better contrast ratio as individual pixels can be switched off to obtain absolute black even while an adjacent pixel is at maximum brightness. This increases clarity whether you’re standing far away or right up next to it.


Ultra HD:

Stands for Ultra High Definition (also known as Super Hi-Vision, Ultra HDTV), as defined by the Consumer Technology Association (CTA), describes any display or content with an aspect ratio of at least 16:9 (1.77:1) and a resolution at least four times higher than “Full-HD” 1080p. 4K Ultra HD (2160p) and 8K Ultra HD (4320p) are two digital video formats proposed by NHK Science & Technology Research Laboratories and standardized by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU).

“4K” televisions have a resolution of 3,840 pixels wide by 2,160 pixels high (aka 2160p), while “8K” displays have a resolution of 7,680 pixels wide by 4,320 pixels high (4320p). “4K” panels feature four times the resolution of 1080p Full-HD displays. These two formats utilize the 16:9 (1.77:1) aspect ratio, just like 720p and 1080p televisions



Stands for Wide Color Gamut. It includes colors significantly more saturated than those that can be represented using Recommendation ITU-R BT.709, such as the color space defined in Rec. 2020.
The 3 triangles show: The large color space proposed by Rec. 2020, the new standard for Ultra HD TVs, only achievable on laser displays). The smaller DCI-P3 color space (Digital Cinema, coming to TVs), and the smallest Rec. 709 space (traditional video monitors, including HD - Broadcast TV, Blu-ray, Over-The-Top).



*For additional definitions, please download the full and printable HDR Glossary.